Russia: 1817/1818, 6% State Loan
Issued, 93,325,432 roubles for the withdrawal of assignats (paper currency). There are both registered and bearer certificates. Registered certificates were of various handwritten denominations but could be converted to bearer by a stamp from the Russian Consul. When made to bearer, the payment of the 6-monthly interest was shown by stamping the certificate.
There are 4 series of certificates; all are in Russian. Each certificate has 2 numbers; the higher number starts at 1 for the entire loan while the lower number starts at 1 for each of the 4 series. There are over 100 different types as the certificates continued to be issued over a period of about 100 years and each certificate bears a printed date of issue which is also repeated in the watermark. The 3 basic types are as follows:
Type 1 – early dates 1818 to 1822
Type 2 – script lettering, 1820s to 1850s
Type 3 – Roman lettering, about 1860 onwards
Certificates were also issued by various Dutch bankers including Hope, Ketwich, Voombergh, Widow W. Borski, van Heukalom, Van Vloten and De Gyselaar, in exchange for the original Russian issues so they could easily be traded in Holland.